Identification of Kv11.1 Isoform Switch as a Novel Pathogenic Mechanism of Long-QT SyndromeClinical Perspective
Background—The KCNH2 gene encodes the Kv11.1 potassium channel that conducts the rapidly activating delayed rectifier current in the heart. The relative expression of the full-length Kv11.1a isoform and the C-terminally truncated Kv11.1a-USO isoform plays an important role in regulation of channel function. The formation of C-terminal isoforms is determined by competition between the splicing and alternative polyadenylation of KCNH2 intron 9. It is not known whether changes in the relative expression of Kv11.1a and Kv11.1a-USO can cause long-QT syndrome.
Methods and Results—We identified a novel KCNH2 splice site mutation in a large family. The mutation, IVS9-2delA, is a deletion of the A in the AG dinucleotide of the 3′ acceptor site of intron 9. We designed an intron-containing full-length KCNH2 gene construct to study the effects of the mutation on the relative expression of Kv11.1a and Kv11.1a-USO at the mRNA, protein, and functional levels. We found that this mutation disrupted normal splicing and resulted in exclusive polyadenylation of intron 9, leading to a switch from the functional Kv11.1a to the nonfunctional Kv11.1a-USO isoform in HEK293 cells and HL-1 cardiomyocytes. We also showed that IVS9-2delA caused isoform switch in the mutant allele of mRNA isolated from patient lymphocytes.
Conclusions—Our findings indicate that the IVS9-2delA mutation causes a switch in the expression of the functional Kv11.1a isoform to the nonfunctional Kv11.1a-USO isoform. Kv11.1 isoform switch represents a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of long-QT syndrome.
- Received February 24, 2014.
- Accepted May 27, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.