Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in SpainCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
Prevalence and Phenotype–Genotype Relationship
This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.
Background—Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely high risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HoFH is caused by mutations in several genes, including LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and LDL protein receptor adaptor 1 (LDLRAP1). No epidemiological studies have assessed HoFH prevalence or the clinical and molecular characteristics of this condition. Here, we aimed to characterize HoFH in Spain.
Methods and Results—Data were collected from the Spanish Dyslipidemia Registry of the Spanish Atherosclerosis Society and from all molecular diagnoses performed for familial hypercholesterolemia in Spain between 1996 and 2015 (n=16 751). Clinical data included baseline lipid levels and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. A total of 97 subjects were identified as having HoFH—of whom, 47 were true homozygous (1 for APOB, 5 for LDLRAP1, and 41 for LDLR), 45 compound heterozygous for LDLR, 3 double heterozygous for LDLR and PSCK9, and 2 double heterozygous for LDLR and APOB. No PSCK9 homozygous cases were identified. Two variants in LDLR were identified in 4.8% of the molecular studies. Over 50% of patients did not meet the classical HoFH diagnosis criteria. The estimated HoFH prevalence was 1:450 000. Compared with compound heterozygous cases, true homozygous cases showed more aggressive phenotypes with higher LDL-C and more atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events.
Conclusions—HoFH frequency in Spain was higher than expected. Clinical criteria would underestimate the actual prevalence of individuals with genetic HoFH, highlighting the importance of genetic analysis to improve familial hypercholesterolemia diagnosis accuracy.
- Received May 10, 2016.
- Accepted September 28, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.