Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics Divided According to Outcome (Heart Failure Hospitalization or Death From Any Cause)

VariableAll, n=86Outcome, n=36No Outcome, n=50P Value
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Demographics
 Age; median (Q1; Q3)73 (66; 78)74 (66; 79)73 (66; 81)0.743
 Sex (females)44 (51)20 (57)24 (48)0.519
Medical history
 Hypertension68 (79)29 (81)39 (78)1.000
 COPD14 (16)9 (25)5 (10)0.080
 T2DM27 (31)15 (42)12 (24)0.102
 Coronary heart disease29 (34)15 (42)14 (28)0.248
 Stroke9 (10)4 (11)5 (10)1.000
Clinical data at 4–8 wk stable state (baseline)
 Atrial fibrillation49 (57)20 (56)29 (58)0.829
 NYHA class I19 (22)4 (21)15 (30)0.020
 NYHA class II47 (55)19 (53)28 (56)
 NYHA class III20 (23)13 (36)7 (14)
Measurements
 Weight (kg)83.5 (72; 98)88 (73; 99)82.5 (70; 95)0.356
 BMI (kg/m2)28.5 (25.0; 32.9)30.2 (26; 34)27.0 (24; 32)0.130
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)140 (90; 210)140 (128; 150)145 (130; 160)0.214
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)80 (70; 85)78 (70; 83)80 (75; 85)0.080
 Heart rate (beats per minute)70 (60; 80)71 (62; 81)69 (58; 80)0.480
Treatment
 ARB28 (33)12 (33)16 (32)1.000
 ACE-inhibitor42 (49)20 (56)22 (44)0.382
 Tiazid diuretics14 (16)7 (19)7 (14)0.562
 Potassium sparing diuretics18 (21)8 (22)10 (20)0.796
 Loop diuretics63 (73)33 (92)30 (60)0.001
 Calcium channel blocker27 (31)10 (28)17 (34)0.640
 β-blocker69 (80)27 (75)42 (84)0.411
 Anticoagulants47 (55)18 (50)29 (58)0.515
 Antiplatelet29 (34)12 (33)17 (34)1.000
 Statins38 (44)20 (56)18 (36)0.082
 Nitroglycerine12 (14)7 (19)5 (10)0.169
 Pacemaker20 (23)10 (27)10 (20)0.445
Echocardiographic measurements
 LVEF (%)64 (58; 68)63 (57; 67)64 (60; 68)0.279
 LAVI (mL/m2)43.3 (37.2; 52.8)41.7 (36; 55)43.3 (38; 53)0.654
 LA volume (mL)86.5 (75; 104)86.5 (72; 102)86.5 (77; 105)0.619
Left ventricular mass index (g/m2)115 (95; 142)123 (99; 148)107 (95; 141)0.525
 Males125 (102; 157)154 (121; 157)110 (85; 157)0.362
 Females109 (94; 136)115 (92; 138)102 (95; 133)0.764
 LVEDd (mm)47 (43; 53)49 (44; 53)46 (43; 52)0.341
 E/A ratio1.3 (0.9; 2.5)1.7 (1.2; 3.3)1.1 (0.8; 1.4)0.003
 E/e′ ratio10.8 (8.3; 14.0)13.4 (10; 18)9.5 (7.4; 13.5)0.022
 E´8.0 (7.0; 10.0)7.5 (5.5; 10.5)8.0 (7.0; 10.0)0.321
 IVRT (diastole)94 (77; 113)80 (68; 108)102 (82; 115)0.050
 Mitral VTI23 (16; 30)27 (20; 34)22 (15; 28)0.012
 E-wave deceleration time (ms)203 (156; 228)203 (158; 228)202 (151; 222)0.768
Biochemistry
 NT-proBNP (ng/L)1000 (469; 2330)1375 (574; 2565)819 (429; 1820)0.062
 Glucose fasting (mmol/L)5.6 (5.1; 7.5)6.0 (5.3; 7.5)5.6 (5.1; 7.5)0.359
 Creatinine (μmol/L)84 (73; 107)90 (74; 121)80 (70; 102)0.141
 Creatinine clearance (mL/min)70 (51; 92)65 (46; 85)74 (53; 94)0.330
  • Continuous variables are presented as median and lower and upper quartiles (Q1;Q3) and categorical variables as numbers (n) and percentages. ACE indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; COPD; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LA, left atrium; LAVI, left atrial volume index; LVEDd, left ventricular end diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; IVRT, isovolumteric relaxation time; NT-proBNP, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; VTI, velocity-time integral; and T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.