Table 2.

Biomarkers Significantly Associated With Outcome According to the OPLS (Model 2)

BiomarkerShort NameGene SymbolUniprot No.HR (95% CI)
Per Log Increase
P Value for HRHR (95% CI)
per Log Increase, Adjusted*
P Value for Adjusted HRP (Corr)Type
Growth/differentiation factor 15GDF-15GDF-15Q999881.73 (1.15–2.59)0.0091.53 (0.97–2.43)0.0680.298Growth factor
Chitinase-3-like protein 1CHI3L1CHI3L1P362221.37 (1.07–1.78)0.0141.35 (1.03–1.77)0.0330.297Enzyme
C–C motif chemokine 20CCL20CCL20P785561.43 (1.11–1.84)0.0081.35 (1.02–1.78)0.0350.276Cytokine
ProlactinPRLPRLP012361.56 (1.04–2.34)0.0301.33 (0.87–2.06)0.1910.254Cytokine
Spondin-1SPON1SPON1Q9HCB62.84 (1.30–6.18)0.0092.31 (0.95–5.58)0.0640.254Other
Agouti-related proteinAGRPAGRPO002531.46 (1.03–2.06)0.0351.48 (1.01–2.16)0.0430.249Other
AdrenomedullinAMADMP353183.05 (1.34–6.96)0.0082.53 (1.03–6.21)0.0440.247Other
Fatty acid–binding proteinFABP4FABP4P150901.46 (1.06–2.03)0.0221.33 (0.92–1.93)0.1270.246Transporter
Fibroblast growth factor 23FGF-23FGF23Q9GZV91.27 (1.04–1.56)0.0201.18 (0.94–1.48)0.1600.239Growth factor
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1TNF-R1TNFRSF1AP194382.37 (1.13–4.98)0.0222.29 (1.10–4.79)0.0270.238Transmembrane receptor
Interleukin-8IL-8CXCL8P101451.58 (1.08–2.30)0.0171.49 (0.98–2.27)0.0650.235Cytokine
Interleukin-6IL-6IL-6P052311.40 (1.07–1.84)0.0151.34 (0.99–1.82)0.0610.231Cytokine
TNF receptor superfamily member 5CD40CD40P259421.99 (1.10–3.60)0.0241.61 (0.85–3.04)0.1440.227Transmembrane receptor
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2TRAIL-R2TNFRSF10BO147631.70 (1.05–2.76)0.0301.46 (0.85–2.49)0.1690.222Transmembrane receptor
Galectin-3Gal-3LGALS3P179312.16 (1.07–4.33)0.0311.70 (0.79–3.68)0.1790.213Other
Urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptorU-PARPLAURQ034052.89 (1.11–7.53)0.0302.01 (0.68–5.94)0.2080.199Transmembrane receptor
ST2 proteinST2IL1RL1Q016381.98 (1.14–3.45)0.0161.78 (0.98–3.26)0.0600.199Transmembrane receptor
Proteinase-activated receptor 1PAR-1F2RP251162.20 (1.02–4.73)0.0431.79 (0.83–3.85)0.1370.194G-protein–coupled receptor
NT-proBNP (ELISA)†NT-proBNP†1.49 (1.05–2.12) †0.027†1.49 (1.02–2.17)†0.038†0.188†
Matrix metalloproteinase-12MMP-12MMP12P399001.52 (1.02–2.24)0.0381.42 (0.93–2.16)0.1050.186Peptidase
Vascular endothelial growth factor AVEGF-AVEGFAP156921.69 (0.88–3.24)0.114NANA0.161Growth factor
Matrix metalloproteinase-7MMP-7MMP7P092371.75 (1.01–3.02)0.0461.52 (0.85–2.69)0.1550.152Peptidase
Tissue factorTFF3P137261.68 (0.68–4.14)0.259NANA0.149Transmembrane receptor
Cystatin-BCSTBCSTBP040801.27 (0.85–1.90)0.247NANA0.136Peptidase
ResistinRETNRETNQ9HD891.21 (0.73–2.03)0.462NANA0.132Other
Kallikrein-6KLK6KLK6Q928760.70 (0.35–1.39)0.3090.52 (0.26–1.07)0.074−0.153Peptidase
TNF-related activation-induced cytokineTRANCETNFSF11O147880.69 (0.39–1.22)0.2010.71 (0.40–1.27)0.250−0.211Cytokine
Galanin peptidesGALGALP224660.67 (0.45–1.00)0.0520.71 (0.48–1.05)0.086−0.238Other
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligandTRAILTNFSF10P505910.50 (0.1–1.20)0.1540.34 (0.12–0.96)0.041−0.292Cytokine
  • CI indicates confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; NA, not applicable; NT-proBNP, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; and OPLS, orthogonal partial least square.

  • * Adjusted NT-proBNP, age, sex.

  • Adjusted age, sex. Analyzed by ELISA.